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The Battle of Arras (also known as the Second Battle of Arras) was a British offensive on the Western Front during World War erlinelomantkgs831.ga 9 April to 16 May , British troops attacked German defences near the French city of Arras on the Western Front. The British achieved the longest advance since trench warfare had begun, surpassing the record set by the French Sixth Army on 1 July
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The French government desperately needed a victory to avoid civil unrest but the British were wary of proceeding, in view of the rapidly changing tactical situation. It was agreed in the London Convention of 16 January, that the French assault on the Aisne would begin in mid-April and that the British would make a diversionary attack in the Arras sector approximately one week prior.

Armies were to devise the plan and the principles of the artillery component. The corps were to allot tasks to divisions, which would then select objectives and devise infantry plans subject to corps approval. Artillery planning was controlled by corps with consultation of divisions by the corps General Officer Commanding, Royal Artillery GOCRA which became the title of the officer at each level of command who devised the bombardment plan, which was coordinated with neighbouring corps artillery commanders by the army GOCRA.

Specific parts of the bombardment were nominated by divisions, using their local knowledge and the results of air reconnaissance. The corps artillery commander was to co-ordinate counter-battery fire and the howitzer bombardment for zero hour. Corps controlled the creeping barrage but divisions were given authority over extra batteries added to the barrage, which could be switched to other targets by the divisional commander and brigade commanders.

SS provided the basis for the operational technique of the BEF for the rest of The training manual SS of February marked the end of attacks made by lines of infantry with a few detached specialists. German defenders were to be suppressed by fire from the Lewis-gun and rifle-grenade sections, while the riflemen and hand-grenade sections moved forward, preferably by infiltrating around the flanks of the resistance, to overwhelm the defenders from the rear. The changes in equipment, organisation and formation were elaborated in SS The Normal Formation For the Attack of February , which recommended that the leading troops should push on to the final objective, when only one or two were involved but that for a greater number of objectives, when artillery covering fire was available for the depth of the intended advance, fresh platoons should "leap-frog" through the leading platoons to the next objective.

To bring uniformity in adoption of the methods laid down in the revised manuals and others produced over the winter, Haig established a BEF Training Directorate in January , to issue manuals and oversee training. SS and its companion manuals like SS , provided British infantry with "off-the-peg" tactics, devised from the experience of the Somme and from French Army operations, to go with the new equipment made available by increasing British and Allied war production and better understanding of the organisation necessary to exploit it in battle.

In a new manual of 1 December , Grundsätze für die Führung in der Abwehrschlacht im Stellungskrieg Principles of Command for Defensive Battles in Positional Warfare , the policy of unyielding defence of ground regardless of its tactical value, was replaced by the defence of positions suitable for artillery observation and communication with the rear, where an attacking force would "fight itself to a standstill and use up its resources while the defenders conserve[d] their strength".

Sentries could retreat to larger positions Gruppennester held by Stosstrupps five men and an NCO per Trupp , who would join the sentries to recapture sentry-posts by immediate counter-attack.

Defensive procedures in the battle zone were similar but with greater numbers. The front trench system was the sentry line for the battle zone garrison, which was allowed to move away from concentrations of enemy fire and then counter-attack to recover the battle and outpost zones; such withdrawals were envisaged as occurring on small parts of the battlefield which had been made untenable by Allied artillery fire, as the prelude to Gegenstoss in der Stellung immediate counter-attack within the position.

Such a decentralised battle by large numbers of small infantry detachments would present the attacker with unforeseen obstructions. Resistance from troops equipped with automatic weapons, supported by observed artillery fire, would increase the further the advance progressed.

A school was opened in January to teach infantry commanders the new methods. Given the growing Allied superiority in munitions and manpower, attackers might still penetrate to the second artillery protection line, leaving in their wake German garrisons isolated in Widerstandsnester , resistance nests, Widas still inflicting losses and disorganisation on the attackers.

As the attackers tried to capture the Widas and dig in near the German second line, Sturmbattalions and Sturmregimenter of the counter-attack divisions would advance from the rückwärtige Kampfzone into the battle zone, in an immediate counter-attack Gegenstoss aus der Tiefe. If the immediate counter-attack failed, the counter-attack divisions would take their time to prepare a methodical attack, provided the lost ground was essential to the retention of the main position.

Such methods required large numbers of reserve divisions ready to move to the battlefront. The reserve was obtained by creating 22 divisions by internal reorganisation of the army, bringing divisions from the eastern front and by shortening the Western Front, in Operation Alberich. By the spring of , the German army in the west had a strategic reserve of 40 divisions. Experience of the German 1st Army in the Somme Battles , Erfahrungen der I Armee in der Sommeschlacht was published on 30 January by Ludendorff but new defensive methods were controversial.

Sceptics wanted the tactic of fighting in the front line to continue, with authority devolved no further than battalion, to maintain organizational coherence in anticipation of a methodical counter-attack Gegenangriff by the relief divisions after 24—48 hours.

General Ludwig von Falkenhausen , commander of the 6th Army arranged the infantry at Arras for the rigid defence of the front-line, supported by methodical counter-attacks Gegenangriffe , by the "relief" divisions Ablösungsdivisionen on the second or third day. Vaast — Bailleul-aux-Cornailles road. Just before the battle, Falkenhausen had written that parts of the front line might be lost but the five Ablösungsdivisionen could be brought forward to relieve the front divisions on the evening of the second day.

On 6 April, General Karl von Nagel, the 6th Army Chief of Staff, accepted that some of the front divisions might need to be relieved on the first evening of battle but that any penetrations would be repulsed with local immediate counter-attacks Gegenangriffe in der Stellung by the front divisions.

On 7 April, Nagel viewed the imminent British attack as a limited effort against Vimy ridge, preparatory to a bigger attack later, perhaps combined with the French attack expected in mid-April. The 6th Army commanders had also been reluctant to encourage the British to change their plans if the British detected a thinning of the front line.

The Germans were inhibited by the extent of British air reconnaissance, which observed new field works and promptly directed artillery fire on them. The 6th Army failed to redeploy its artillery, which remained in lines easy to see and bombard.

Work on defences was also divided between maintaining the front line, strengthening the third line and the new Wotanstellung Drocourt—Quéant switch line further back. After the Allied conference at Chantilly, Haig issued instructions for army commanders on 17 November , with a general plan for offensive operations in the spring of Kenyon, composed a list of requirements by 19 November, for which he had 16 Army Troops companies, five with each corps in the front line and one with XVIII Corps, four tunnelling companies, three entrenching battalions, eight RE labour battalions and 37 labour companies.

Inside the old walls of Arras were the Grand and Petit places, under which there were old cellars, which were emptied and refurbished for the accommodation of 13, men. Under the suburbs of St Sauveur and Ronville were many caves, some huge, which were rediscovered by accident in October When cleared out the caves had room for 11, men, one in the Ronville system housing 4, men. Two long tunnels were excavated from the Crinchon sewer, one through the St Sauveur and one through the Ronville system, allowing the 24, troops safely sheltered from German bombardment to move forward underground, avoiding the railway station, an obvious target for bombardment.

The subterranean workings were lit by electricity and supplied by piped water, with gas-proof doors at the entrances; telephone cables, exchanges and testing-points used the tunnels, a hospital was installed and a tram ran from the sewer to the St Sauveur caves. The observation post for the VI Corps heavy artillery off the St Sauveur tunnel, had a telephone exchange with circuits; much of the work in this area being done by the New Zealand Tunnelling Company.

On the First Army front German sappers also conducted underground operations, seeking out Allied tunnels to assault and counter-mine , in which 41 New Zealand tunnellers were killed and wounded. Caverns were dug into the sides for brigade and battalion HQs, first aid posts and store-rooms. The subways were found to be a most efficient way to relieve troops in the line, form up for the attack and then to evacuate wounded. Some of the tunnels were continued into Russian saps with exits in mine craters in no man's land and new mines were laid.

Galleries were dug to be opened after the attack for communication or cable trenches, the work being done by the nd, th, nd and th Tunnelling companies Lieutenant-Colonel G. Williams, Controller of Mines First Army. Although the Royal Flying Corps RFC entered the battle with inferior aircraft to the Luftstreitkräfte , this did not deter their commander, General Trenchard , from adopting an offensive posture.

Dominance of the air over Arras was essential for reconnaissance and the British carried out many aerial patrols. RFC aircraft carried out artillery spotting, photography of trench systems and bombing. It became even more dangerous with the arrival of the Red Baron, Manfred von Richthofen in March The presence of Jasta 11 led to sharply increased losses of Allied pilots and April , became known as Bloody April.

A German infantry officer later wrote,. Often five or six planes in succession would be chased away or shot down in flames. The casualties created a pilot shortage and replacements were sent to the front straight from flying school; during the same period, 56 aircraft were crashed by inexperienced RFC pilots.

To keep enemy action to a minimum during the assault, a creeping barrage was planned. This required gunners to create a curtain of high explosive and shrapnel shell explosions that crept across the battlefield in lines, about one hundred metres in advance of the assaulting troops. The Allies had previously used creeping barrages at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle and the Battle of the Somme but had encountered two technical problems. The first was accurately synchronising the movement of the troops to the fall of the barrage: The second was the barrage falling erratically as the barrels of heavy guns wore swiftly but at differing rates during fire: While there was a risk of friendly fire, the creeping barrage forced the Germans to remain in their shelters, allowing Allied soldiers to advance without fear of machine gun fire.

The new instantaneous No. Poison gas shells were used for the final minutes of the barrage. The principal danger to assaulting troops came from enemy artillery fire as they crossed no man's land , accounting for over half the casualties at the first day of the Somme. A further complication was the location of German artillery, hidden as it was behind the ridges. In response, specialist artillery units were created to attack German artillery.

Their targets were provided by 1st Field Survey Company, Royal Engineers, [44] who collated data obtained from flash spotting and sound ranging. Flash spotting required Royal Flying Corps observers to record the location of telltale flashes made by guns whilst firing. On Zero-Day, 9 April, over 80 percent of German heavy guns in the sector were neutralised that is, "unable to bring effective fire to bear, the crews being disabled or driven off" by counter-battery fire.

The black line first objective was not to be attacked by tanks, which were to begin the drive to the front line at zero hour and rendezvous with infantry at the black line two hours later. The tanks were reserved for the most difficult objectives beyond the black line in groups of up to ten vehicles. Four tanks were to attack Neuville Vitasse, four against Telegraph Hill, four against The Harp and another four against Tilloy lez Mofflaines and two were to drive down the slope from Roclincourt west of Bois de la Maison Blanche.

Once the blue line had fallen, the tanks still running were to drive to rally points. The preliminary bombardment of Vimy Ridge started on 20 March; and the bombardment of the rest of the sector on 4 April. Some went without food altogether for two or three consecutive days. The official history of the 2nd Bavarian Reserve Regiment describes the front line as "consisting no longer of trenches but of advanced nests of men scattered about". The nd Reserve Regiment history writes that its trench system was "lost in a crater field".

Zero-Hour had originally been planned for the morning of 8 April Easter Sunday but it was postponed 24 hours at the request of the French, despite reasonably good weather in the assault sector. Zero-Day was rescheduled for 9 April with Zero-Hour at The assault was preceded by a hurricane bombardment lasting five minutes, following a relatively quiet night. When the time came, it was snowing heavily; Allied troops advancing across no man's land were hindered by large drifts. It was still dark and visibility on the battlefield was very poor.

The combination of the unusual bombardment and poor visibility meant many German troops were caught unawares and taken prisoner, still half-dressed, clambering out of the deep dug-outs of the first two lines of trenches.

Others were captured without their boots, trying to escape but stuck in the knee-deep mud of the communication trenches. The major British assault of the first day was directly east of Arras, with the 12th Division attacking Observation Ridge, north of the Arras—Cambrai road.

After reaching this objective, they were to push on towards Feuchy, as well as the second and third lines of German trenches. At the same time, elements of the 3rd Division began an assault south of the road, with the taking of Devil's Wood, Tilloy-lès-Mofflaines and the Bois des Boeufs as their initial objectives.

The following day, troops from the 56th Division were able to force the Germans out of the village, although the Monchyriegel was not fully in British hands until a few days later.

One reason for the success of the offensive in this sector was the failure of Falkenhausen to employ a defence in depth.

In theory, the enemy would be allowed to make initial gains, thus stretching their lines of communication. Reserves held close to the battlefield would be committed once the initial advance had bogged down, before enemy reinforcements could be brought up.

The defenders would thus be able to counter-attack and regain any lost territory. In this sector, Falkenhausen kept his reserve troops too far from the front and they were too late for a useful counter-attack on either 10 or 11 April.

At roughly the same time, in perhaps the most carefully crafted portion of the entire offensive, the Canadian Corps launched an assault on Vimy Ridge. By giving units specific goals, troops could continue the attack even if their officers were killed or communication broke down, thus bypassing two major problems of combat on the Western Front. There was nevertheless an inflexibility to the plan which prevented the leading troops from continuing the advance and on 10 April the Germans began to stop the gaps with reserves.

After the territorial gains of the first two days, a lull followed as the immense logistical support needed to keep armies in the field caught up with the new realities.

Battalions of pioneers built temporary roads across the churned up battlefield; heavy artillery and its ammunition was manhandled into position in new gun pits; food for the men and feed for the draught horses was brought up and casualty clearing stations were established in readiness for the inevitable counter-attacks.

Allied commanders also faced a dilemma: An attack down the forward slope of high ground, exposed to the fire of lesser slopes beyond, is often extremely difficult and now on the general front The Berlin Vossische Zeitung , wrote: Such events are a kind of tactical reverse.

If this tactical reverse is not followed by strategical effects i. The news of the battle reached him during his 52nd birthday celebrations at his headquarters in Kreuznach. He telephoned each of his commanders and "gained the impression that the principles laid down by OHL were sound but the whole art of leadership lies in applying them correctly".

A later court of inquiry would establish that Falkenhausen had indeed misunderstood the principles of defence in depth. Haig continued to attack at Arras, to continue to divert troops from the French on the Aisne. The 51st Division attacked on the northern side in heavy fighting on the western outskirts of Roeux Wood and the chemical works. On their left, the 37th Division, attacked the buildings west of Roeux Station and gained the line of their objectives on the western slopes of Greenland Hill, north of the railway.

On the left of the main British attack the 63rd Division, made rapid progress against Gavrelle and secured the village. To the south of the Scarpe and east of Monchy-le-Preux the 29th Division gained the western slopes of the rising ground known as Infantry Hill. The Cojeul river marked a divisional boundary within the VI Corps. Guémappe on the north side of the river was the objective of the 15th Division, attacking east from Wancourt towards Vis-en-Artois. Several determined German counter-attacks were made and by the morning of 24 April, the British held Guémappe, Gavrelle and the high ground overlooking Fontaine-lez-Croisilles and Cherisy; the fighting around Roeux was indecisive.

The principal objective of the attack was the need to sustain a supporting action tying down German reserves to assist the French offensive against the plateau north of the Aisne traversed by the Chemin des Dames. With a view to economising my troops, my objectives were shallow and for a like reason and also in order to give the appearance of an attack on a more imposing scale, demonstrations were continued southwards to the Arras-Cambrai Road and northwards to the Souchez River.

The battle continued for most of 28 and 29 April, with the Germans delivering determined counter-attacks. The British positions at Gavrelle were attacked seven times with strong forces and on each occasion the German thrust was repulsed with great loss by the 63rd Division.

After securing the area around Arleux at the end of April, the British determined to launch another attack east from Monchy to try to break through the Boiry Riegel and reach the Wotanstellung , a major German defensive fortification. This was scheduled to coincide with the Australian attack at Bullecourt to present the Germans with a two—pronged assault. British commanders hoped that success in this venture would force the Germans to retreat further to the east. With this objective in mind, the British launched another attack near the Scarpe on 3 May.

However, neither prong was able to make any significant advances and the attack was called off the following day after incurring heavy casualties. Le scarpe da donna sono croce e delizia di ogni amante della moda. Quale donna saprebbe resistere al richiamo delle calzature viste sulle passerelle delle ultime sfilate?

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Se cerchi la scarpa per tutte le occasioni, che si tratti di una calzatura sportiva, elegante, con un tacco o con plateau, con Zalando avrai solo l'imbarazzo della scelta. Basterà immaginare tra i vari modelli quello che meglio potrebbe adattarsi alle tue esigenze, per scegliere le scarpe da donna più adatte alla stagione e all'occasione d'uso. Punta sulle scarpe con il tacco medio e abbinale a un capo della vasta collezione di pantaloni palazzo per le tue giornate in ufficio: Passi da un impegno all'altro con rapidità?

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